Leather is a durable and flexible material created by the tanning of animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide. It can be produced through manufacturing processes ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry. Leather is a natural product and depending on the type of leather selected a degree of variation must be expected.
The tanning of leather is an art much like winemaking, and as such, there are slight variations in color and texture from dye-lot to dye-lot, from hide to hide, and even from one section of a hide to another. Therefore, every leather item is truly unique.
Extensive informations about leather you find here: all-about-leather.co.uk
Carving (veg-tan or vegetable-tan) leather – uses a combination of tree bark (usually the bark of the live oak tree) and water to create tannic acid baths in which the raw animal hide is immersed. The hide is soaked for seven days in successive baths of varying concentrations of tannic acid. The resulting leather is called veg-tan or carving leather. Its properties are such that it can be embossed or carved more readily because of the firmness of the leather. Levy’s uses veg-tan leather in its tooled guitar straps and other designs. This is the most expensive leather Levy's use.
Garment leather – This is a trade term, not a leather term. Garment leather is actually a chrome-tan leather that has been treated with softeners to make it more mellow and is usually thinner than regular chrome-tan leather. Levy’s garment leather is usually drum dyed so the color fully permeates the leather.
Latigo leather has exceptional strength and durability, which make it ideal for itility straps, bags and any tough outdoor gear. It's also used for horse gear applications such as reins, stirrups, tie downs and lace. After tanning, sides are drum dyed, then dipped in hot oils and hand rubbed to a beautiful finish.
Nappa leather (or Napa leather) is the general term for leathers made from various animal skins, machined on the grainy side. It's a soft and grainy smooth leather.
In the past there were contradictory stories about the origin of the term 'Nappa leather'. At least true is that Nappa leather had always existed and had been produced in tanneries in the Californian Nappa Valley. But only then famous became the term 'Nappa' after something completeley new was made.
Today Nappa leather is a general term for particularly soft smooth leather from all species and uses.
Nubuck is a type of leather with a soft, velvety surface and is some of the most expensive leather to purchase. Unlike the less expensive suede, this type of leather is far more durable and is excellent for use on items like furniture because it will last much longer than suede. It is subject to the same kind of easy staining that occurs with suede and often requires pre-treatment or stain resistant protection to extend its life.
It’s easy to get confused about whether a leather item is nubuck or suede since both look and feel similar. Both types of leather are sanded to produce the velvet soft feel that is so desirable. The main difference is that nubuck is sanded on the outer surface of the leather, essentially the part that would have been the exterior skin of the animal, while suede is sanded on the inner layer of the skin.
Suede leather – is chrome-tan leather that has had the top grain surface taken off. The resulting underneath peace is then re-tanned, softened and the tiny hair cells buffed to give it the soft nap characteristic of suede.
has a variety of different names: Artificial, leatherette, man-made leather, synthetic leather, pleather, leather-like and naugahyde all refer to faux leather. It is is a fabric or finish intended to substitute for leather in fields such as upholstery, clothing, and fabrics, and other uses where a leather-like finish is required but the actual material is cost-prohibitive, unsuitable, or unusable for ethical reasons.
Faux leather is having the look, the surface and feeling of the real leather, and is colored like one. However, it is not real leather. The synthetic leather is used as an alternative to the real leather and there is no requirement for the animal to die to produce this kind of leather. However, in terms of durability, tear strength and breathability etc. it can not compete with genuine leather.
Tradition und Innovation. Wool felt is one of the oldest textile materials in the history of civilisation. The use of felt during the Neolithic period is proven by archeological finds. The finds are fabric remnants, which were identified as pressed animal hairs. Because of the good compostability of the material it is unlikely that elderly felted objects will be found.
Even though the process for the manufacture has been refined over the centuries there have been no changes to the manufacturing principles and the basic raw materials used. Sheep’s wool and/or wool fibres are felted and compacted through the application of moisture, heat and friction until a homogenous textile fabric is created, namely wool felt. The material with 1000 possibilities is indeed experiencing a revival recently. Although more and more sophisticated plastics are being developed all the time they have been unable to displace felt because of its excellent and versatile properties.
...insulates against heat and cold
...absorbs and emits liquids
...protects from soiling
...pads and protects from mechanical damage
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural condition, the cotton balls will tend to increase the dispersion of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds.
The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated from 5000 BC have been excavated in Mexico and the Indus Valley Civilization (modern day Pakistan). Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that so lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, and it is the most widely used natural fiber.
Today the 'nature product cotton' has fallen into disrepute more and more. Especially with its excessive consumption of mineral fertilisers and pesticides. Cotton farming have a significant effect on global emissions of carbon dioxide. Besides this, the environmental organisations denounce the extremely high water consumption in cultivation and processing cotton.
Tweed is a rough, unfinished woollen fabric, of a soft, open, flexible texture, resembling cheviot or homespun, but more closely woven. It is made in either plain or twill weave and may have a check or herringbone pattern. Subdued, interesting colour effects (heather mixtures) are obtained by twisting together differently coloured woollen strands into a two- or three-ply yarn.
Tweeds are desirable for informal outerwear, being moisture-resistant and durable. Tweeds are commonly worn for outdoor activities such as shooting and hunting, in both Ireland and the United Kingdom. "Lovat" is the name given to the green used in traditional Scottish tweed. In Ireland, tweed manufacturing is most associated with County Donegal in the Province of Ulster.
Tweed is also commonly found covering vintage or retro guitar amplifiers, such as the Fender Tweed. Tweed has recently come back to fashion with high end stores and designers using it often.
Internet resource: Wikipedia.org
Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, backpacks, and other items for which sturdiness is required. It is also popularly used by artists as a painting surface, typically stretched across a wooden frame. It is also used in such fashion objects as handbags and shoes.
Modern canvas is usually made of cotton or linen, although historically it was made from hemp. It differs from other heavy cotton fabrics, such as denim, in being plain weave rather than twill weave. Canvas comes in two basic types: plain and duck. The threads in duck canvas are more tightly woven.
Internet resource: Wikipedia.org
Nylon (chemical name: Polyhexamethylenadipinsäureamid) is a brand fiber made from Polyamid. It was the first synthetical fiber ever which was produced entirely synthetical (from carbon, water, air). Usually the name 'Nylon' is associated with pantihoses for ladies. Nylons with the quality feel of silk and stronger than cotton were marketed in the 40's and they hit the market immediately. In comparison to natural fibers like silk, nylon fibers are more brilliant and lighter, tear-proof, extremely resilient, anticrease, mothproof, lye-proof and well dyeable.
Polypropen (Polypropylen oder PP) is a relatively young fibre. The first time, in 1954, it was synthesised and mass produced by the researcher Giulio Natta (Italy). Its excellent characteristics nearly everyone probably knows from the sports and outdoor wear. Flexible, tear-resistant, acid-resistant ... these are only a few of the words which describes the advantages. Therefore a guitar strap made from polypropylen is extremely durable and ideal for excessive performances on stage. It is only necessary to pay attention to one thing - keep cool, the strap isn't heat resistant.